Used as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries, global demand for graphite is expected to increase by 500% by 2050 as efforts to scale-up energy storage and electric vehicle adoption intensify.
With some of the highest graphite deposits worldwide, Africa is poised to play a central role in supplying the global market, with several high-impact projects leading the charge.
Tanzania – Nachu Project: 174 million tons
The Nachu project in Tanzania is a coarse-flake graphite operation set to produce on average 236,000 tons per day (t/y) of graphite flake concentrate over a period of 15 years.
Tanzania – Epanko Mine: 128.2 million tons
Developed by ASX-listed EcoGraf, the Epanko natural flake graphite project is located in Tanzania and will supply feedstock for a battery anode material facility in Western Australia. A March 2023 assessment showed estimated reserves of 128 mt, with the project set to produce 300,000 t/y over 18 years.
Tanzania – Bunyu Mine: 127 million tons
Australian mineral company Volt Resources is developing the Bunyu graphite mine, located in Eastern Tanzania. With mineral reserves estimated at 127 mt, the project will process 400,000 t/y of ore over 22 years.
Mozambique – Montepuez Mine: 119.6 million tons
The Montepuez mine is a graphite project located in Mozambique’s Cabo Delgado province. The project is being developed by Tirupati Graphite following an April 2023 acquisition, and boasts mineral reserves of 119.6 mt with a capacity to produce 100,000 t/y of flake graphite.
Mozambique – Balama Mine: 110 million tons
The Balama Mine, located in Mozambique’s Cabo Delgado province, is being developed by Syrah Resources. The mine has estimated reserves of 110 mt and the capacity to produce two million t/y of ore over a 50-year lifespan.
Madagascar – Molo Mine: 76.7 million tons
Madagascar’s Molo mine is located in the south western province of the country, with indicated mineral resources measuring 76.7 mt. Initial production is estimated at 17,000 t/y with a phase two expansion targeting 150,000 t/y.
Tanzania – Mahenge Project: 70 million tons
The Mahenge project is being spearheaded by Australian-based Black Rock Mining. The project represents one of the biggest graphite flake resources globally, with reserves estimated at 70 mt. Production is estimated at 347,000 t/y with a life of mine of 26 years.
Tanzania – Chilalo Mine: 67.3 million tons
Owed by Australia’s Evolution Energy Minerals, the Chilalo mine has a total mineral resource of 67.3 mt. The project will produce 52,000 t/y of graphite concentrate over a 17-year period. An offtake agreement is in place with Yichang Xincheng Graphite for the sale of 30,000 t/y of coarse flake graphite for the first three years of the mine’s operation.
Guinea – Lola Project: 54 million tons
The Lola Project, located in Guinea-Conakry, is being developed by Canadian mineral company SRG Mining. The project represents one of the biggest surface graphite deposits worldwide with measured and indicated resources equating to 54 mt. Following a feasibility study in 2023, production capacity has doubled to an average 94,000 t/y over a 17-year lifespan.
Tanzania – Lindi Jumbo Project: 41.8 million tons
Australian-based Walkabout Resources is developing the Lindi Jumbo graphite project in Tanzania, which boasts a mineral resource of 41.8 mt. Construction of the mine commenced in September 2021 and ore mining in July 2022, with production measuring 40,000 t/y over a 24-year lifespan.